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  • MAY 2020 Issue has been successfully launched on 1 May 2020.

Abstract

A REVIEW ON DARATUMUMAB: A MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY FOR THE TREATMENT OF MULTIPLE MYELOMA

Sharon Liza Koshy*, Reza Rajesh, Navya Mariam Koshy, Renuka R. and Elessy Abraham

ABSTRACT

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant disorder of the B cell lineage, characterized by neoplastic monoclonal expansion of plasma cells in the bone marrow resulting in destruction of adjacent bone tissue. Multiple myeloma causes cancer cells to accumulate in the bone marrow, where they crowd out healthy blood cells. Rather than producing helpful antibodies, the cancer cells produce abnormal proteins that can cause complications. Multiple myeloma is an incurable disease but the recent availability of new agents especially when they are used in combination regimens, have dramatically improved initial response rates. Targeted immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies has become critical for thesuccessful treatment of many forms of cancer. Daratumumab is a human IgG╬║ monoclonal antibody. It targets CD38 cellsa cell surface protein that is overexpressed on multiple myeloma cells. It have several functions like direct antitumor effects and an immune-modulatory component. Preclinical studies have shown that Daratumumab induces MM cell death through several mechanisms, including complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), and apoptosis. It also causes the clonal expansion of cytotoxic T cells and depletion of immunosuppressive cells. Thus Daratumumab in combinations can reduce the risk of disease progression or death by more than 60%.

Keywords: Daratumumab, Multiple myeloma(MM) , CD38 cells , monoclonal antibody.


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