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Abstract

URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN IRAQ: EVALUATION OF EARLY DETECTION METHODS AND ETIOLOGY

Abdulghani M. Alsamarai, Ibrahim Abdul-Rahman Latif, Mohamed Mohsen Abdul-Aziz

ABSTRACT

Background: Urinary tract infection is health growing problem globally and encountered at all ages and associated with treatment failure. Aim: To evaluate the predictive value of urine direct testing approaches as a non-invasive and cost effective test for diagnosis of urinary tract infection especially in primary health care centers in which culture is not available. Materials and Methods: Urine sample screened for urinary tract infections by Gram stain, Nitrite Reductase, Leukocyte Esterase and culture. Results: The incidence of UTI in Erbil City was 22% in our study cohort. The incidence was significantly higher in female as compared to male. E. coli was the predominantly (46.42%; 52/112) isolated from subjects with UTI, followed by Coagulase negative staphylococci (33.9%;38/112), Klebsiella pneumonia (8.03%; 9/112), Enterobacter cloacae (5.35%;6/112), Serratia marcescens (4.46%; 5/112) and Acinetobacter baumannii (1.78%;2/112). Direct urine tests are with low sensitivity, but with high specificity and their combination may increase the sensitivity and specificity rate. Conclusion: UTI incidence was lower to that reported in other areas in Iraq and significantly more in female than in male. E. coli was the predominantly isolated from subjects with UTI, followed by Coagulase negative staphylococci. Rapid tests such as gram stain, Nitrite Reductase and Leukocyte Esterase are with predictive value in diagnosis of UTI when interpreted in combination.

Keywords: Urinary tract infection, UTI, E. coli, Coagulase negative staphylococci, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter baumannii.


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