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Abstract

MACROSCOPIC AND MICROSCOPIC CHARACHTERIZATION OF ATRIPLEX HALIMUS L. GROWING IN EGYPT AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF ITS CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY

Amal M. Kabbash*

ABSTRACT

Herbal medicines have been commonly used and remain so instead of synthetic drugs because of their possible fewer side effects. Atriplex halimus L. (Amaranthaceae), denominated saltbush, is a promising medicinal plant growing in Egypt. The aim of this study is to address the botanical identification of this valuable plant and evaluate its cytotoxic activity. Transverse sections and macerated tissues were examined. From present evaluation, it is evident that certain characters such as hair, stomata in epidermal layer, calcium oxalate, vascular bundles and xylem vessels can provide useful information for correct identification of the plant. In addition, quantitative measurement of different cells dimensions is presented as an evidence for correct identification using Orion software version 6. Cytotoxicity (SRB assay) of the plant total extract and different fractions was assessed using cells from human hepatocellular (HepG2), colon (HCT), intestinal (CACO), larynx (HEP2), cervical (HELA), lung (A549), breast (MCF-7), and prostate (PC3) carcinoma and doxorubicin was used as a standard. The results showed that the total methanol-methylene chloride (1:1) extract inhibited the survival of the different tested cell lines by 67±0.76, 75±1.7, 62.5±0.9, 73.5±1.14, 73.0±1.3, 74.5±1.76, 80.5±1.5, and 78.0±0.67 %, respectively. Furthermore, the cytotoxic activities of different fractions obtained after MCI-gel CHP20P column fractionation were evaluated. Fractions eluted with water, and H2O-MeOH (40:60) showed the highest activities against prostate and breast carcinoma cell lines with IC50 of 43.7±0.56, and 25±0.87 μg/mL, respectively. It was concluded that Atriplex halimus L. could be correctly identified using some characteristic macroscopic and microscopic features together with quantitative determination of different cells dimensions. The total extract and different fractions of A. halimus L. possess a dose dependent cytotoxic activity with specific selectivity against MCF-7 and PC3 carcinoma cells.

Keywords: Atriplex halimus L., Macroscopic, Microscopic, Cytotoxicity, MCF-7 and PC3 carcinoma cells.


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