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Abstract

DEPRESSION AND FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO DEPRESSION IN WORKING CLASS: MALE VS. FEMALE ANALYSIS IN KARACHI, PAKISTAN: A CROSS-SECTIONAL SURVEY

Sumbul Shamim, *Sana Ghayas, Fakhsheena Anjum, Noor Jahan, Hina Yasin and Mehwish Hussein

1Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dow College of Pharmacy, Dow University of HealthSciences, Karachi, Pakistan.

2Department of Research, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Depression is a general mental disorder that comes with the symptoms of anxiety leading to significant impairments in an individual’s abilities to cope up with his/her responsibilities. This study was conducted in Karachi, Pakistan in which working class from various institutions were recruited to assess the incidence and frequency of depression and its relation with the age. Total 400 individuals (n=204 females and n=196 males) participated in this study and Zung’s Self Rating Depression Scale was applied for the assessment of depression among the individuals. Furthermore, Factor analysis with principal axis factoring was run to assess the important factors leading to depression; Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure and Bartlett’s test were run to check the adequacy of factorable items; and Reliability of each factor was checked by Cronbach’s alpha value after extraction. Then, new variables scores were formed while adding-up related questions from the data. Shapiro-Wilk’s test was used to check the normality for all scores. For comparison of scores between gender, t test and Mann-Whitney U tests were employed for symmetric and skewed variables respectively. Spearman’s correlation was determined to check the association of age with these scores. From the study, it was found that the factors like disturbed moments, down heartedness, active life, relaxation, overall emotions and annoying situations had significant values according to the Barlett’s test. The correlation of age with active life was also found positive and significant. Through this study, it was found that the females were more depressed due to facing disturbed moments and feeling downheartedness whereas the males had more relaxed and active life than the females. Depression can be prevented in the society via early detection and intervention and proper psychological educational programmes.

Keywords: Depression, Working class, Zung’s Self Rating Depression Scale, Stress, Anxiety.


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