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Lakshmi L. Maharaj, Madan Mohan Gupta*, Andanappa K Gadad


The aim of this review article is to highlight recent advancements of Microsphere as a technique of drug delivery to a specific target site of action. Microsphere as transporters of drug are developed to deliver therapeutic agents to the target site of action in a sustained or controlled release manner. Microsphere are also referred to as coated granules, pellets or seeds, microsperules, and spansules and are mainly used in medicine as drug carriers. Many aspects of Microsphere and their recent advancements including the need for natural or biodegradable polymers to produce maximum therapeutic effect with minimum toxicity are reviewed. Diverse microsphere applications are used because of its controlled release rate of encapsulated drug over a period of hours to months. Microencapsulation provides an active protection of the encapsulated drug against degradation before it reaches the target site of action. Pre-programmed drug release profiles can be generated to match the therapeutic needs of the patient. Applications include targeting using microparticulate carriers, vaccine delivery, monoclonal antibody mediated Microsphere targeting, chemoembolization, imaging, topical porous Microsphere, surface modified Microsphere, vast advancements in biotechnology, gene delivery, intratumoral and local drug delivery, intramuscular, intravenous, intra-arterial, oral, nasal, buccal, transdermal, colonic and gastrointestinal drug delivery. Microsphere or micro-particles manufactured by an appropriately selected method can be evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Ultraviolet-visible (UV) Spectroscopy, In vitro and In vivo drug release studies.

Keywords: Microsphere, Microencapsulation, Drug delivery system, Controlled drug delivery, Target site, Therapeutic efficacy.

[Full Text Article]

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