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*Sumalatha Gindi1, Tanuja Methra1, Babu Rao Chandu2, Revathi Boyina1, Varun Dasari1

1Hindu College of Pharmacy, Amaravathi road, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India.
2Principal & Professor, Priyadarshini Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Pulladigunta, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India.


Urolithiasis (nephrolithiasis) or kidney stone is formation of urinary calculi at any level of urinary tract. It is estimated that 12% of world population experiences renal stone disease with a recurrence rate of 70-80% in male and 47-60% in female. Urolithiasis is still a mysterious disease even after extensive research in Urology. Sophisticated instruments, investigations etc., have failed to trace out the exact cause and mechanism of urolithiasis. Urinary calculi are the third most common affliction of the urinary tract which are exceeded by the urinary tract infections and prostate diseases. The dissolution of Calcium oxalate crystals may be due to effect of flavonoids such as Kaemepferol-3-rhamnoside and kaempferol-3-rhamnogalactoside, triterpenes such as betulin and tannins. Recent studies evidenced that treatment with anti-oxidants and free radical scavengers reduced Calcium oxalate crystal induced renal injuries. In the present study aqueous leaf extract of Ageratum conyzoides was studied for its antiurolithiatic activity against most common type of renal stones i.e., calcium oxalate type. Calcium oxalate urolithiasis was induced by administration of Gentamycin and calculi producing diet (5% ammonium oxalate in standard rat pellet feed). The extract was also assessed for in vitro antioxidant effect by using nitric oxide and 2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl free radicals. Aqueous leaf extract of Ageratum conyzoides exhibited significant (p<0.05) effect in preventing calcium oxalate stone formation and also in dissolving the preformed calcium oxalate stones in the kidney along with significant effect on in vitro antioxidant parameters. The present study clearly demonstrated the antiurolithiatic activity of Ageratum conyzoides supporting the traditional claim.

Keywords: Antiurolithiatic activity, Calcium oxalate, Kidney stones, Gentamycin, Calculi producing diet, Ageratum conyzoides, urolithiasis.

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