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Abstract

A DESCRIPTIVE REVIEW ON GLUCOCORTICOID INDUCED HYPERGLYCEMIA

Babitha Kosuri*, Kare Shushrutha Nadh, Shaik Vaseem Najahat Fathima, Naveen Yaradesi and Padmalatha Kantamneni

ABSTRACT

Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones, which are therapeutically used in almost all medical specialities, as anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant. Glucocorticoids are widely indicated to treat inflammatory disorders and autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, asthma, skin rashes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute gout and systemic lupus erythematosus. Although the successful evidence for the efficacy of glucocorticoids in the treatment, their clinical use is restricted by some side effects. However, a numerous side effects have been pointed associated with use of glucocorticoids including increased blood pressure and blood sugar levels, glaucoma, fluid retention, menstrual irregularities, weight gain, insomnia, stomach pain and infection. Approximately 40% and 70% of patients had been developed with new-onset of steroid induced hyperglycemia at 550-bed and 1000-bed teaching hospital respectively. The underlying and fundamental mechanisms of these effects of glucocorticoids are recognizable, complex and partly defined. Glucocorticoid induced hyperglycemia (GIH) is a transient condition, developed either by stimulating gluconeogenesis in hepatic metabolism or by showing inimical on insulin action. Early detection and appropriate management of glucocorticoid induced hyperglycemia should provide better remission for the patients receiving glucocorticoid treatment. This review article mainly focuses to highlight the prevalence, risk factors, pathogenesis and treatment guideline of glucocorticoid induced hyperglycemia.

Keywords: Glucocorticoids, Side effects, Hyperglycemia, Treatment.


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