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B. Sai Keerthana* and Dr. R. Govinda Rajan


Coronaviruses are enveloped, positive-sense, single stranded RNA viruses that are distributed broadly among humans which cause respiratory, enteric, hepatic, and neurologic diseases. SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh member of the family of corona viruses that infects humans, after MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-1; it is a beta coronavirus of group 2B with over 70 % similarity in genetic sequence to SARS-CoV-1. BioNTech, a German company, together with Pfizer, an American company, are developing another mRNA-based vaccine, which encodes the SARS-CoV-2 RBD domain. This vaccine candidate, named BNT162, incorporates modified mRNA and also includes a T4 fibritin-derived trimerization domain to enhance immune response. Currently leading the clinical trials race, AZD1222 is in Phase 3 and is also part of the Operation Warp Speed initiative. Preclinical trials in pig models demonstrated a high antibody response. Controlled human infection model (CHIM) studies, in which human volunteers are exposed to infectious pathogens (also known as challenge agents), are an important component of pathology, immunology, and vaccine research. Sinopharm is developing two inactivated vaccines in collaboration with Wuhan Institute of Biological Products and Beijing Institute of Biological Products. Both vaccine candidates are currently in Phase 3 trials.

Keywords: Coronaviruses, BioNTech, trimerization, Vaccine, Clinical trials, Monoclonal antibody.

[Full Text Article]

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