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A.S.K. Sankar, K. Manikandan* and M. Manojkumar


Carbohydrates are polyhydroxyaldehydes (aldoses) or polyhydroxyketones (ketoses) composed of C, H, and O. They are classified into monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. Monosaccharides can be trioses, tetroses, pentoses, etc. depending on the number of carbon atoms in the molecule. They present optical isomerism due to the presence of an asymmetric or chiral C. In animals, most carbohydrates in humans are d isomers. Glucose is an aldohexose and the most important monosaccharide in humans, used as fuel by cells. Oligosaccharides are composed of two to ten monosaccharide units, mostly they are play a role antibodies and anti-coagulants etc. Polysaccharides or glycans are polymeric macromolecules, classified into: Homopolysaccharides, Heteropolysaccharides. Homopolysaccharides includes starch, which is the nutrient reserve of plants, composed by amylose and amylopectin. Amylose has 1000–5000 d-glucose units joined linearly by α-1→4 glycosidic bonds. Method of analysis includes qualitative tests and quantitative analysis which further done by Chemical method, Titrimetric method, Enzymatic method, Polarimetry method, Gravimetric method. Insoluble dietary fiber, soluble dietary fiber, and total dietary fiber are each composed primarily of non-starch polysaccharides.

Keywords: Carbohydrates, Types, Methods of analysis, Qualitative tests, Quantitative analysis.

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