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Abstract

A REVIEW ARTICLE OF ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION AND DONATION

*Saurabh Krushnalal Dhirbassi (B.Pharm), L. R. Bagwan (M.Pharm) and L. D. Hingane (M.Pharm, Ph.D Scholar)

ABSTRACT

Successful human allotransplants have a relatively long history of operative skills that were present long before the necessities for post-operative survival were discovered. Rejection and the side effects of preventing rejection (especially infection and nephropathy) were, are, and may always be the key problem. Several apocryphal accounts of transplants exist well prior to the scientific understanding and advancements that would be necessary for them to have actually occurred. The Chinese physician History Pien Chi'ao reportedly exchanged hearts between a man of strong spirit but weak will with one of a man of weak spirit but strong will in an attempt to achieve balance in each man. Roman Catholic accounts report the 3rd-century saints Damian and Cosmas as replacing the gangrenous or cancerous leg of the Roman deacon Justinian with the leg of a recently deceased Ethiopian. Most accounts have the saints performing the transplant in the 4th century, many decades after their deaths; some accounts have them only instructing living surgeons who performed the procedure. The more likely accounts of early transplants deal with skin transplantation. The first reasonable account is of the Indian surgeon Sushruta in the 2nd century BC, who used autografted skin transplantation in nose reconstruction, a rhinoplasty. Success or failure of these Tagliacozzi performed successful skin autografts; he also failed consistently with allografts, offering the first suggestion of rejection centuries before that mechanism History of transplants: 2010: First full facial transplant by Dr. Joan Pere Barret and team (Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron on 26 July 2010, in Barcelona, Spain) 2011: First double leg transplant by Dr. Cavadas and team (Valencia's Hospital, La Fe, Spain) 2012: First Robotic Alloparathyroid transplant. University of Illinois Chicago 2013: First successful entire face transplantation as an urgent life-saving surgery at Maria Skłodowska-Curie Institute of Oncology branch in Gliwice, Poland.[134] 2014: First successful uterine transplant resulting in live birth (Sweden) 2014: First successful penis transplant. (South Africa).First neonatal organ transplant. (U.K.) 2018: Skin gun invented, which takes a small amount of healthy skin to be grown in a lab, then is sprayed onto burnt skin. This way skin will heal in days instead of months and will not scar.

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