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R. Gowri*, N. Narayanan, A. Maheswaran, G. Harshapriya, Siji Mathachan,B. Karthick


The English word "peptic" comes from the Greek word peptein, meaning "to digest". The English word "ulcer" comes from the Latin word ulcus (genitive: ulceris), meaning "a sore, a wound, an ulcer. Peptic ulcer represents a chronic gastrointestinal illness poses serious medical problem. For the past twenty years Peptic ulcers can be seen as an area in which the development of new medicines especially more successful in improving outcomes. A crater like sore or wound is called ulcer. Stomach acids such as hydrochloric acid and pepsin are present in peptic ulcers. However, Peptic ulcer means an ulcer in the digestive system of the stomach (duodenum, esophagus). Peptic ulcer is a sore in mucosal lining of the stomach (gastric ulcer) or the first part of the small intestine (duodenal ulcer) a due to result of acid and pepsin effect in the lumen marked by tissue disintegration. No single cause has been found for ulcers. However, it occurs due to imbalance between digestive fluids in the stomach and duodenum. Peptic ulcer are benign but do not change the normal functions of stomach but it may cause bleeding and pain. Historically it was believed lifestyle factors, such as stress and diet caused ulcers. Later, researches reveals that stomach acid such as hydrochloric acid and pepsin are the reasons to peptic ulcer due to . infection with a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). To any age group people ulcers can appear but duodenal ulcers frequently occurs in patients between the ages of 30 – 55 yrs. Peptic ulcers persist to smokers and NSAIDs taking patients.If untreated it may leads to a bleeding and perforated ulcer. Injury to gastric mucosal lining and mucous defence weakness plays important role for gastric ulcers. The symptoms are gnawing pain, nausea, loss of appetite, weight loss and weakness. Medication can be used to treat stomach ulcers. proton pump inhibitor can usually reduce the amount of acid in our digestive system for healing ulcer. Combination therapy with antibiotics is given If an H. pylori infection is responsible for the ulcer. The diagnosis of an ulcer is made by either a barium upper gastrointestinal X-ray (upper GI series) or an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. This review focusses on pathophysiology of peptic ulcer along with recent approaches in curing it.

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