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Shubham Singh* and Mayank Kumar


The epidemic of emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease (COVID-19) in China has been brought to global attention and declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020. Coronaviruses (CoVs) are enveloped viruses entrapping non-segmented, positive-sense and single-stranded ribonucleic acid (ss RNA). Their genome size ranges from 26 to 32 kb, being the largest known RNA virus. We performed a chronicle review to describe existing literature about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) historical aspects, classification, immunology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management, treatment, preventive measures, international/national initiative and future perspective. PubMed, Springer, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Scopus databases were searched for relevant articles. In the last 15 years, we have witnessed the emergence of two zoonotic diseases, highly pathogenic human coronaviruses. Scientific advancements since the epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus-1 (SARS-CoV-1) in 2003 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012 have accelerated our understanding of the distribution, and possible control of diseases and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and the development of therapeutics to treat viral infection. Lethality rate of coronavirus SARS-CoV-1 was observed approximately 10% while, MERS-CoV lethality rate was observed to be 34.4%. The severity of SARS-CoV-2 disease is such that the mortality rate appears to be 3 to 6%. As we know that, some countries have specific therapies and vaccines are available for disease control, and the pandemic of COVID-19 is posing a great threat to global public health. Although only when the pandemic ends it will be possible to assess the full health, social and economic impact of this global disaster. This review represents a picture of the current situation of the pandemic. To provide a comprehensive summary to public health authorities and potential readers worldwide, we detail the present understanding of COVID-19 and introduce the current state of development of measures in this review.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, Pathogenesis, Lethality.

[Full Text Article]

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