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Abstract

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY IN INFANT AND CHILDREN OF ANTIBIOTICS ACTING AGAINST GRAM-POSITIVE ORGANISMS AND INHIBITING THEIR PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

*Gian Maria Pacifici

ABSTRACT

Tetracycline, tigecycline, erythromycin, clindamycin, linezolid, vancomycin, and daptomycin are the antibiotics which act against gram-positive bacteria, inhibit protein synthesis, and are used in paediatric patients. These antibiotics are efficacy and safe in infants and children and induce few adverse-effects. In particular, vancomycin induces nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity when it is used for long periods or administered at high doses. Tetracycline, erythromycin, vancomycin, and linezolid are administered at higher doses than tigecycline, clindamycin and daptomycin. The elimination half-life of tigecycline, erythromycin, clindamycin, linezolid, vancomycin, and daptomycin is quite short, ranges from 4 to 10 hours and it is longer in infants than in children. Tetracycline is used to treat infections caused by Chlamydia, Rickettsia or Mycoplasma. Tigecycline is active against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Plasmodium falciparum, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. Erythromycin is efficacy against Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia, Legionella species, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Clindamycin is active against β-haemolytic streptococci, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Plasmodium falciparum, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Bacteroides species, Fusobacterium nucleatum, α-haemolytic streptococci, Diplococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, group A β-haemolytic streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and many protozoa. Linezolid is used to treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and gram-positive cocci. Vancomycin is active against Clostridium difficile and staphylococcus aureus. Daptomycin is effective against Staphylococcus aureus and several gram-positive organisms. The aim of this study is to describe the dosing, pharmacokinetics, effects, adverse-effects, and treatment of tetracycline, tigecycline, erythromycin, clindamycin, linezolid, vancomycin, and daptomycin in infants and children.

Keywords: Tetracycline, tigecycline, erythromycin, clindamycin, linezolid, vancomycin, daptomycin.


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