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Abstract

MEDICAL PERSPECTIVES ON TYPES 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

*Waliwita WALC and Kumari MPKL

ABSTRACT

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM) that is associated with improper utilization of insulin by target cells and tissues, is the most common form of DM characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and relative insulin deficiency. It results from interaction between genetic, environmental and behavioral risk factors. The Involvement of impaired functions in the alpha-cell has recently been recognized in pathophysiology. As a result of this dysfunction, glucagon and hepatic glucose levels that rise during fasting are not suppressed with a meal. In DM, given inadequate levels of insulin and increased insulin resistance. The global findings revealed that 6.4% of the global adults population is suffering from Type 2 diabetes (Type 2 DM) mellitus which leads one adult in ten will be vulnerable by 2040. Type 2 DM is becoming a significant challenge for healthcare systems and an obstacle to economic development considering the expenditure for healthcare services. Some genetic studies revealed that the DM has an inheritance through genetics. Improper treatments for DM leads to systemic complications such as cancers, cardiovascular diseases, retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy etc. Management of DM can be done through lifestyle and diet modification focusing on maintenance of body mass index of 25 kg/m2. Recent studies elaborates that antioxidants, such as vitamins, supplements, plant-derived active substances and drugs with antioxidant effects, have been used for oxidative stress treatment in T2DM patients which facilitate reduction of complications.

Keywords: .


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