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Dissanayake KGC*, Fernando WSK, Perera BT and Perera WPRT


At present, people focus on the use of natural remedies having fewer side effects and it has given rise to the investigation of different properties of garlic as an alternative therapy for diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and microbial infections. Allicin, one of the active components of freshly crushed garlic extract, has a variety of antimicrobial activities and immunomodulatory properties. This article is focused on those properties of major phytochemicals such as allicin (diallyl thiosulfinate), Ajoene [(E,Z)-4,5,9-trithiadodeca-1,6,11-triene 9-oxide] and other organosulfide compounds present in Allium sativum. The extract of garlic shows antibacterial properties against a plethora gram-positive, gram-negative and acid-fast bacteria including Pseudomonas sp., Proteus sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., etc. and even though the intracellular effect of allicin is not well understood, it has found that it has the ability to inhibit sulfhydryl group enzymes due to sulfhydryl group modifying activity of it. According to this review, it shows antiprotozoal properties against Entamoeba histolytica, Trichomonas vaginalis, Giardia lamblia, etc, and is active against diseases like giardiasis. Also antiviral activity against influenza virus, HIV, rhinovirus, herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, etc. Antifungal against Aspergillus sp., Candida sp., Torulopsis sp., Trichophyton sp., Cryptococcus sp., etc. by decreasing the uptake of oxygen by fungal cells and reducing the growth of the organism by damaging membranes and inhibiting the synthesis of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. This article reviews the properties and the mechanism of inhibition of microorganisms by several phytochemicals present in the extract of garlic.

Keywords: Allium sativum, Secondary metabolites, Anti-viral, Anti-bacterial.

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