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Abstract

ANTI-OXIDATIVE POTENTIALS OF AQUEOUS, CHLOROFORM AND METHANOL LEAF EXTRACTS OF WHITFIELDIA LATERITIA ON 2, 4-DINITROPHENYLHYDRAZINE-INDUCED ANAEMIA IN RATS

*Aja, O. A., Egba, S. I., Odo, C, E., Omoboyowa, D. A., and Danladi, G. J., Ajayi, A. A.

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed at investigating the anti-oxidative potentials of aqueous, chloroform and methanol leaf extracts of Whitfieldia lateritia on 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine-induced anaemia in rats. The toxicity study, proximate and phytochemical analyses of the extracts were carried out using standard procedures. Thirty-six Wistar rats were grouped into six (n =6). Group I: normal control; Group II: negative control; Group III: administered 0.6 ml/kg body weight (b.w) of astifer (standard haematinic drug); Group IV to VI were administered 400 mg/kg b. w. of the aqueous, chloroform and methanol leaf extracts, respectively. Induction of anaemia was achieved in test groups (II-VI) by administration of 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (20 mg/kg b.w.) once daily for seven days. Administration of extracts commenced subsequently and lasted for 21 days. Animals were sacrificed on the 22nd day and blood collected for laboratory analysis. The acute toxicity (LD50) test revealed that the extract is safe up to the dose of 5000 mg/kg b. w. The results of the qualitative phytochemical test showed phenols, reducing sugars and alkaloids to be abundantly present. Flavonoids and tannins were moderately present, while terpenoids, steroids and glycosides were slightly present. Saponins were not detected in the test. The results of proximate analysis revealed the presence of all the major food components. Carbohydrate content recorded the highest with 48.9% followed by ash content of 17.32%, moisture content of 15.69%, protein content of 11.37%. The fat and fibre contents were the least with percentage values of 3.3 and 3.36 respectively. Anaemic rats treated with all the leaf extracts showed significant (P < 0.05) increase in catalase activity compared with those treated with 0.6ml/kg b.w of multivitamin astifer. Similarly, groups V and VI showed significant (P < 0.05) increase in glutathione concentration compared with group IV. There was no significant difference observed in the superoxide dismutase activity across anaemia induced treated rats compared with the control group. MDA and vitamin A levels in groups V and VI were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those of group III. Vitamin E and C levels in groups V and VI showed significant (P < 0.05) increase compared with those of group II. In conclusion, W. lateritia leaf has beneficial anti-oxidative properties in anaemia induced wistar rats and possesses free radical scavenging potentials at minimal dose that supports its use for the management of cellular oxidation.

Keywords: Anti-Oxidative, Phytochemistry, Proximate, Anaemia, Extracts.


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