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Rajesh. M*, Lakshmi.M, Anju.S, Palanichamy. S and Solairaj. P.


Parenteral preparations are sterile, pyrogen-free liquids (solutions, emulsions, or suspensions) or solid dosage forms containing one or more active ingredients, packaged in either single-dose or multidose containers. They are intended for administration by injection, infusion, or implantation into the body. The term parenteral derives from the Greek word: para which means outside and enteron which means intestine. Parenteral preparations may contain excipients such as solvents, suspending agents, buffering agents, substances to make the preparation isotonic with blood, stabilizers, or antimicrobial preservatives. The addition of excipients should be kept to a minimum. When excipients are used, they should not adversely affect the stability, bioavailability, safety, or efficacy of the active ingredient(s), or cause toxicity or undue local irritation. The manufacturing process should meet the requirements of Good Manufacturing Practice. The quality of starting materials, the design and maintenance of the equipment and the method of manufacture must be such as to ensure the stability of the active substance and the final product which is sterile and free of pyrogens and particulate matter. This review describes an overview of parenteral drug delivery system. Firstly, different routes of administration, formulation of parenterals, their types and containers used are pointed out. In the second part, various Preformulation and pharmaceutical factors affecting parenteral administration, general manufacturing procedure and evaluation tests of parenterals are reviewed.

Keywords: Efficacy, Injection, Pyrogens, Stability, Sterile, Toxicity.

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