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Abstract

ANGLE OF REPOSE WALKS ON ITS TWO LEGS: CARR INDEX AND HAUSNER RATIO

Kushal Nandi, Dr. Dhrubo Jyoti Sen, Dr. Falguni Patra, Dr. Bankim Nandy, Dr. Khokan Bera and Dr. Beduin Mahanti

ABSTRACT

Every solid in dry state can flow on a surface to produce flowability according to the rheology. Flow property depends on the state of solid: Free flowing or Coarse flowing. The angle of repose of any solid in pulverized form represents an angle measured in theta (θ) which is measured in tanθ which is the ratio of height/radius of the conical shape. The equation for calculating the angle of repose is: tan‒1(2h/d). Using your scientific calculator, multiply height by 2 and divide this value by the distance. Then, hit the inverse tan key (or tan‒1) and the answer just calculated. This will give the angle of repose. Angle of Repose (θ) In Degree (º) when it is less than 25º then it is excellent, when it is in the range 25‒30º then it is good, when it is in the range 30‒40º then it is average and when it is greater than 40º then the flow property is noted as bad. Flow Properties according to angle of repose comes under that range 0‒90º. Carr Index of any solid is calculated for compressibility of a powder which is based on true density (ρT) and bulk density (ρB), CI=100[(ρT‒ρB)/ρB]. A Carr index greater than 25 is considered to be an indication of poor flowability, and below 15, of good flowability. Another way to measure the flow of a powder is the Hausner ratio, which can be expressed as ρT/ρB. Excellent/very free flow for Carr Index is ≤10% and for Hausner Ratio is 1.00‒1.11, Good/free flow for Carr Index is 11‒15% and for Hausner Ratio is 1.12‒1.18, Fair flow for Carr Index is 16‒20% and for Hausner Ratio is 1.19‒1.25, Passable flow for Carr Index is 21‒25% and for Hausner Ratio is 1.26‒1.34, Poor/cohesive flow for Carr Index is 26‒31% and for Hausner Ratio it is 1.35‒1.45, Very Poor/very cohesive flow for Carr Index is 32‒37% and for Hausner Ratio it is 1.46‒1.59 and Very very poor/non flow Carr Index is >38% and for Hausner Ratio it is >1.60. In a free‒flowing powder, the bulk density and tapped density would be close in value, therefore, the Carr index would be small. On the other hand, in a poor‒flowing powder where there are greater interparticle interactions, the difference between the bulk and tapped density observed would be greater, therefore, the Carr index would be larger. Compressibility of powder depends on true density and tap density and out of that flow property of powder comes in the category of excellent flow (5‒15% compressibility), good flow (16‒18% compressibility), fair flow (19‒21% compressibility), poor flow (22‒35% compressibility), very poor flow (36‒40% compressibility), extremely poor flow (>40% compressibility).

Keywords: Angle of Repose, Carr Index, Hausner Ratio, Tap Density, True Density.


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