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  • MAY 2020 Issue has been successfully launched on 1 May 2020.

Abstract

CHLOROQUINE AND HYDROXYCHLOROQUINE: TO BE NEW FRONTIER IN TREATMENT OF COVID-19

Malesh Shyamkawal Prajapati*, Dilip Bhagwan Yamgar and Mayur Narayan Desale

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an emerging pandemic and infectious disease, which is caused by novel coronavirus. In December 2019, an outbreak of an emerging disease (COVID-19) due to a novel coronavirus started in Wuhan, China and rapidly spread in other countries. WHO declared COVID-19 as a pandemic on March 12th 2020. The symptoms include sneezing, coughing, fever also difficulties in breathing. This disease was first reported to be spread from the seafood market of Wuhan city from china. Various studies including suggest that chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have potential in treatment of COVID-19. Chloroquine is an antimalarial drug which is also potent for viral infections. Chloroquine phosphate is also used to decrease the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and to treat systemic and discoid lupus erythematosus, polymyositis, sarcoidosis, scleroderma, pemphigus, etc. Chloroquine is under clinical studies in the china for its potential effect against the novel corona virus. Chloroquine is known to block virus infection by increasing endosomal pH required for virus/cell fusion, also by interfering with the glycosylation of cellular receptors of SARS-CoV. Hydroxychloroquine can increase the intracellular pH and inhibit lysosomal activity in antigen-presenting cells (APCs), including plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and B cells, so preventing antigen processing. Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine inhibit receptor binding and membrane fusion, two key steps that are required for cell entry by coronaviruses.

Keywords: Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine, antimalarial, antiviral, novel COVID-19, corona virus.


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