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Abstract

HEPCIDIN EXPRESSION AND ACTION ARE MODULATED BY THE INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE, WHICH CAUSES IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA AND INTERFERES WITH ENERGY SYNTHESIS

Flávio Bachini1, Anibal Monteiro de Magalhães Neto4,5, Marcio Vinicius de Abreu Verli2, Adriana Guimarães, Cristiane Pessoa de Andrade, Fabiana Dos Santos Barroso, Suellen Guarani Borges da Silva, Eva de Fátima Paulino, Douglas Daniel Costa Santiago, Jaqueline Santos Silva Lopes and Luis Carlos Oliveira Gonçalves*

ABSTRACT

Hepcidin was first described in mice. It is a peptide hormone composed of 25 amino acids, synthesized in the liver and detectable in blood and urine. This is a narrative review of the literature about the role of hepcidin in the regulation of energy and iron metabolism. Exercise, diseases and aging can cause inflammatory processes. These processes increase the synthesis of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Some cytokines such as IL-6 stimulate hepicidin expression and activity. With its increased activity, this polypeptide stimulates the uptake of iron by macrophages and decreases its absorption in the diet. This aforementioned process causes iron deficiency anemia, which affects the synthesis and degradation of universal metabolic precursors. This whole situation leads to a decrease in the synthesis of the heme group, due to a decrease in the production of intermediates in the Krebs cycle and low bioavailability of iron and other divalent metals. Exercise is a stimulant of inflammatory mediators that signal the expression of systemic hepcidin and proteins that transport iron in BBB. Therefore, the inflammatory process and peripheral iron can influence hepcidin expression and reduce iron overload in the CNS. Several pathologies associated with the nervous system have shown a correlation with hepcidin levels and iron metabolism, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and restless leg syndrome. The future perspective suggests that the next studies look for a correlation between the levels of hepcidin, caused by inflammatory processes, and diseases related to the nervous system.

Keywords: Metabolism, Cytokines, Neurodegenerative Diseases, Anemia.


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