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Abstract

PHYTOCHEMICALS, PROXIMATE ANALYSIS, TOXICITY PROFILE AND ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF THE ETHANOL FRUIT EXTRACT OF NAUCLEA LATIFOLIA SMITH (RUBIACEAE)

Arnold C. Igboasoiyi*, Aniefiok S Udobre and Magnus Onwuzuligbo

ABSTRACT

Nauclea latifolia, also called African Peach, is a deciduous multi-stemmed flowering plant with an open canopy, growing up to height of 9 m. It is found in Nigeria, Burkina Faso and Cameroon. It is used traditionally in Nigeria as an emetic, for wound healing and toothache. The phytochemical constituents, proximate analysis and antioxidant properties of the ethanol fruit extract of Nauclea latifolia were evaluated using standard methods. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of cardiac glycosides, terpenes, polyphenols, flavonoids, carbohydrates, alkaloids, anthraquinone, saponins and tannins. The results of the proximate analysis showed values for moisture content (8.25), total ash (4.60), acid insoluble ash (2.09), crude fibres (6.20), lipid alcohol (10.64), water extractive values (29.01) and protein (13.91). The result of the LD50 showed that no mice died at a dose of 5000 mg/kg. During incubation of the methanol-DPPH with the test samples and standard antioxidants, it was observed that the purple colour of the DPPH was changed to yellow by the extract and the standard antioxidants. The colour change was due to the rapid and sufficient scavenging of the free electrons. The percentage inhibition versus concentration curve of the extract compared favourably with those of the standard antioxidants (Vitamins A, C and E) used in the study. The fruit of Nauclea latifolia is non-toxic, contains a number of phytochemicals and possesses antioxidant property.

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