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Abstract

EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY FROM EXTRACT OF THREE PLANT SPECIES ON STRAINS OF SALMONELLA IN NIGER

Alio Sanda Abdel Kader*, Inoussa Maman Maârouhi, Samna Soumana Oumarou, Alfa Keita Djibo, Halima Oumarou Diadié, Mahamane Idi Issa Abdoulahi and Bakasso Yacoubou

 

ABSTRACT

The use of plants species for medicinal purpose is a current practice since some millennium. The goal of this study is to evaluate the antibacterial properties three plants (Combretum micranthum G. Don, Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd, ex Delile and Phyllanthus pentandrus Schumach & Thonn) on in vitro growth strains of Salmonella. Methods: The plants were dried, milled and the extract have been separated with distilled water, ethanol and chloroform. Phytochemical constituents have been evaluated using the reference method. The extracts have been diluted to different concentrations and tested on strains of Salmonella by the agar diffusion method as described by Bauer. Results: The efficiency of the extraction was higher when realized with ethanol. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, polyphenols, flavonoids, triterpenes, steroids and traces quinone compounds. The determination of polyphenolic compounds has shown an abundance of polyphenols and flavonoids in the ethanolic extract in the three plants. On the other hand, the result showed that the isolates behaved differently in their sensitivity to the different extracts added to their growth medium. Ethanolic extract of A. nilotica produced the highest zone of inhibition varingy from 12 to 22 mm; followed by aqueous extract of A. nilotica from 10 to 16 mm; ethanolic extract of P. pentandrus from 10 to 17.67 mm; ethanolic extract of C. micranthum from 10 to 16.3 mm. Ethanolic extracts of A. nilotica were active against all bacterial strains tested and showed the highest levels of antibacterial activity overall with MIC’s in the range of 1.7 to 5 mg/ mL and MBC’s in the range of 1.75 to 20 mg/ mL. These results justify some of the ethnopharmacological usages describing these plant species.

Keywords: Antibacterial activity, plant, Salmonella, Niger.


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