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Abstract

PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING FOR ACTIVE COMPOUNDS IN LEAVES, BARK AND SEED EXTRACTS OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA IN OWERRI, IMO STATE. SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIA

*Daniel, U. N.1 Ohalete, C. N.2 Nnoli M. C.3

1Department of Biological Science, Federal University of Technology, Owerri. Imo State. Nigeria
2Department of Microbiology, Imo State University, Owerri, Imo State. Nigeria
3Department of Biotechnology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria

ABSTRACT

Leaves, bark and seed extracts of Azadirachta indica (Neem) collected in Owerri, Imo State, South-Eastern Nigeria were screened for the presence of chemically-active components using standard methods. About 500 gm of air dried powdered material of leaves, bark and seed of Azadirachta indica were extracted with methanol in a Soxhlet extractor for 72 hours. It was concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure and controlled temperature (40-50oC) using rotary evaporator. The resultant greenish-black leave, dark-brown bark and black seed extracts were subjected to standard methods of phytochemical testing. The leave and bark extracts were positive for saponins, steroids, tannins, flavonoids, cardiac and cyanogenic glycosides, but showed absence of alkaloids. The seed extract was positive for all the above-mentioned including alkaloid. There was presence of reducing sugars in the seed and leave extracts but not bark extracts. Phytochemicals have potential uses as growth and reproduction inhibitors, repellents and oviposition deterrents, no wonder the plant Neem has its different parts used both medically and industrially (especially in the production of synthetic insecticides).

Keywords: Azadirachta indica, phytochemical, extracts, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.


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