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Abstract

EXPLORING ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF A TRADITIONAL HERBAL MEDICINE, CYNODON DACTYLON (L.) PERS. AND ITS PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING

Smitha K R*, Ruveena T N, Rini Arif and Ann Mesna

ABSTRACT

Traditional medicine nowadays get a resurgence of interest as it is more available and affordable for the treatment of various degenerative diseases compared to the modern synthetic medicine. Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. is a perennial grass (Poaceae ) with a variety of medicinal properties like anabolic, antiseptic, astringent, cyanogenetic, demulcent, depurative, laxative, diuretic and emollient. This study explored their chemical constituents and their role as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.The ethanol, chloroform and aqueous crude extracts of C. dactylon were obtained by soxhlet extraction. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannin, anthraquinone, phenol and alkaloid in the ethanol extract and steroid in the chloroform extract. Aqueous extract showed the presence of tannin, saponin, flavonoid and alkaloid. Ethanol extract of C. dactylon was found to be effective against Bacillus thuringiensis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. Ethanolic extract showed no activity against Streptococcus thermophiles. The ethanol, chloroform and aqueous extracts inhibited the growth of Aspergillus niger. The maximum percentage inhibition of Aspergillus niger was 77.77% in the ethanol extract 55.55% in the chloroform extract and 45.05% in the aqueous extract by the growth inhibitory assay. The ethanol extract exhibited high 2, 2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 305 μg/ml), hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (IC50= 3.75 mg/ml), total reducing efficiency (EC50 = 0.249 mg/ml) and high total antioxidant activity (EC50 = 0.179 mg/ml). These results concluded that C. dactylon possesses high antioxidant and antimicrobial activity and can be used for the development of natural and safe antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds.

Keywords: C. dactylon, phytochemicals, antioxidants, antimicrobial activity


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